The Chemistry Behind Hydroxide Alkaline Water

 

Below is an explanation of the chemistry used to create AQUA OH!

 


STEP 1 – THE SOURCE

Begin with a source of limestone that is almost purely calcium carbonate. Limestone comes in other forms and with different levels of impurities but we have sourced one of the purest forms that is almost exclusively calcium carbonate.

 

STEP 2 – CALCINATION (CALCINING)

Our supplier then pulverizes the limestone and grinds it into a fine powder. This then is heated to 2,000° F in a lime kiln. Natural gas is used for the heating process to maintain the purity of the finished product. The heating liberates carbon dioxide and leaves behind calcium oxide also known as quicklime or burnt lime. Below is the chemical formula for this process:

 
 
 
 
 
 
Or

calcium carbonate (solid) + HEAT —> calcium oxide (solid) + carbon dioxide (gas)
 
STEP 3 – SLAKING

Our supplier then hydrates (slakes) the burnt lime (calcium oxide) to the point of forming solid calcium hydroxide. Only enough water is added to transform the calcium oxide into calcium hydroxide and yet maintain its solid form. This process produces thermal energy through an exothermic reaction. Below is the equation for forming solid calcium hydroxide:

 
 
 
 
 
 

Or

calcium oxide (solid) + water (liquid) —> calcium hydroxide (solid) + heat
 

STEP 4 – HYDRATION

At this point we take the calcium hydroxide and add more water to create a saturated solution. Below is the chemical formula for this process:


 
 
 
 
 
 
Or

calcium hydroxide (solid) + water (liquid) —> calcium (aqueous solution) + hydroxide (aqueous solution)
 
But calcium hydroxide does not dissolve completely in water. It is relatively soluble with a solubility product Ksp of 5.5 × 10?6. A saturated solution of calcium hydroxide is a solution that has the maximum amount of dissolved solute possible. In order to obtain this maximum amount it also has to have undissolved solute in equilibrium with the dissolved solute. Note that the rate of dissolution is equal to the rate of precipitation in a saturated solution equilibrium. The equation for the resulting saturated calcium hydroxide solution is:

 
 
 
 
 
 
Or

{calcium hydroxide (undissolved solid) = calcium (dissolved solid) + hydroxide (dissolved solid)}(aqueous solution)

This formula shows that a saturated calcium hydroxide solution will have an equal amount of calcium hydroxide solid as it has dissolved calcium ions and dissolved hydroxide ions in the water. The calcium ions and hydroxide ions are separated when dissolved and are in a ratio of 1 to 2. This means for every one calcium ion there are two corresponding hydroxide ions. This is because the calcium ion has two extra protons and therefore needs two extra electrons to be in balance. Those two electrons come from two hydroxide ions since each hydroxide ion has one extra electron. There is also an equal amount of undissolved calcium hydroxide to maintain the dynamic equilibrium.

At this point the resulting aqueous solution has undissolved calcium hydroxide, calcium ions, and hydroxide ions all suspended in water. Basically for every one calcium ion there is a corresponding calcium hydroxide ion (precipitate) and two hydroxide ions. (See the Limestone section for further discussion on this process.)

STEP 5 – REFINEMENT

Through several natural proprietary processes we are able to remove most of the calcium hydroxide precipitate and most of the calcium ions from the aqueous solution created in Step 4. This leaves behind a concentrated hydroxide solution.

CONCLUSIONS

  1. The processes involved in the manufacture of our product are all natural and have been taking place for millennia in nature. The cycle of calcium carbonate forming from sediment in water and becoming limestone to then going through the process of becoming calcium oxide and then calcium hydroxide and then hydroxide is a circular model that repeats over and over in nature. (See the Limestone section for more information on this cycle.) Hydroxide by itself is a component of water and naturally goes back and forth in water through the process of self-ionization. These two circles: the one involving carbon, calcium, hydrogen, oxygen, and water; and the other involving hydrogen, oxygen, and water, are powerful forces in nature. We harness this power to remove acidity from the body.
  2. Because of the nature of the above described circles and the power inherent in them, there is no danger of hydroxide becoming hydrogen peroxide and it is not formed from hydrogen peroxide as demonstrated above.

 

  • Although hydroxide has an affinity for metals such as calcium and potassium, it has a greater attraction to hydrogen because of hydrogen bonding. Hydroxide would prefer to become water before it returns to calcium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. It bonds to metals only in the absence of available hydrogen.

The University of Manitoba has provided an easy to grasp experiment that demonstrates the solubility principles of calcium hydroxide discussed above at the below link:

http://www.umanitoba.ca/outreach/crystal/resources%20for%20teachers/Ksp%20Calcium%20Hydroxide%20C12-4-13.doc

The document is called:

The Ksp of Calcium Hydroxide by Titration of HCl with saturated Ca(OH)2

C12-4-13

 NOTE: Although this experiment employs HCl we do not use HCl in any of our processes.



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